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Huffman 16 A. Kaufmann 7 A.
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Music historians are typically interested in positioning a composer — whether that be to pigeon-hole a composer in a movement of the time, or to see that composer as a forerunner for developments that occurred later - whereas composers are generally more interested in the music, de-contextualized. He writes, "When a composer is related to another composer in character and aesthetic, the judged composer becomes a centrifuge of enthusiasm for the judging composer; the latter tends to regard the works of the former as musically valid in themselves, without reference to surroundings, time, or social significance.
He must try to find out whether the subject of his judgement was a man of his time, with a normal place in society as it then existed, or whether he was ahead of his time, writing works that were valid only for some later generation. Criticism has certainly changed since when Skulsky wrote these words.
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In our time, we have become increasingly self-conscious and suspicious of assumptions that lay tacit in scholarship. The most extreme angle on this is when writers such as Michel Foccault become more interested in the way facts are interpreted in a particular time, than the facts themselves. The fact that so much of the writing about Satie, be it by musicologists or composers, has been done by English rather than French speakers, is also interesting.
As Peter Dickinson states, "Almost every twentieth century French composer has acknowledged some debt to him …". Following the second world war, the music of all of these composers was suddenly of no interest to the young generation of composers that sprung up around the Darmstadt Festival of New Music. And as we saw with Vexations, when broad interest in Satie re-surfaced in the mid s it was largely in America and England. What is especially interesting about the Vexations phenomenon, is that the "Satie" that was so fascinating to this new group of enthusiasts, is that in a sense it was a different "Satie", that Lambert and Thomson were promoting.
Furthermore, John Cage, with his friendship with Thomson and Sauguet the composer who showed Cage Vexations is a connection between each of these generations. As I have been at pains to point out throughout, the degree to which we can assert this is difficult to quantify. This is not always the case. For instance, although Schoenberg was interested in Brahms, and wrote a famous article on how Brahms was, contrary to the established view, a progressive, we can not say that the people who took an interest in Schoenberg e.
Boulez, Stockhausen etc. Profile CD with asamisimasa launched on all that dust label. The music by, and influenced by, Beethoven, defined the structure of a composition by means of harmony. Before Beethoven wrote a piece, Cage maintains he planned its movement from one key to another; that is, he planned its harmonic structure. The only new structural idea to emerge since Beethoven is to be found in the work of Satie and early Webern , where structure is defined in terms of time lengths.
With Beethoven the parts of a composition were defined by means of harmony. With Satie and Webern they were defined by means of time lengths. The question of structure is so basic, and it is so important to be in agreement about it, that one might ask: Was Beethoven right or are Webern and Satie right?
I answer immediately and unequivocally, Beethoven was in error, and his influence, which has been as extensive as it is lamentable, has been deadening to the art of music. Art is a way of life. It is for all the world like taking a bus, picking flowers, making love, sweeping the floor, getting bitten by a monkey, reading a book, etc.
In collaboration with Milhaud, Furniture Music is best explained by the creators: "We are presenting today for the first time a creation of Messieurs Erik Satie and Darius Milhaud, directed by M. We urge you to take no notice of it and to behave during the intervals as if it did not exist. You will be trying it out. Erik Satie and Darius Milhaud will be at your disposal for any information or commissions. Here are two examples of "songs" which are "relevant" to Satie: No. The instruction to the performer is to type any sentence by Satie on a typewriter 38 times, with the typewriter amplified by a microphone.
The connection here with Satie is the repetition Vexations and the "typewriter" which Satie famously used as a musical instrument in his ballet suite Parade. The performer is instructed to cut-up each note again this act — cutting — is to be done amplified and then place each one into a different container. The performer is then to draw the notes randomly out of the containers, writing each one in the order that they came out on a new piece of music paper.
The performer must then sing this new product; if the audience gives applause at the end of the "song" then the performer must repeat the song; if the audience does not applaud, then the piece is over. He says of Satie: "I have analyzed his music and found it structured rhythmically.
I have admired his choice of materials and his independent sense of form. His method it seems to me is a marriage of mode and the twelve-tones. I think I know all that. But it does me no good. I am always amazed how exiting it is in any season anywhere to see just any mushrooms growing once again. The same is true each time I hear Satie well-played.
A John Cage reader: in celebration of his 70th birthday - Peter Gena, Jonathan Brent - Google книги
I fall in love all over again. Have no meetings, no get-togethers, no social affairs of any kind without Furniture Music…. I think of it as a melodious, softening the noises of the knives and forks, not dominating them, not imposing itself. It would fill up those heavy silences that sometimes fall between friends dining together. It would spare them the trouble of paying attention to their own banal remarks. And at the same time it would neutralize the street noises which so indiscreetly enter into the play of conversation.
To make such a noise would respond to need. We do not feel that the emotional significance of a phrase is dependent on its being placed at the beginning or end of a particular section. It took place in his art of dramatic development, and was part of his peculiarly sculpturesque views of music. It is as though we were moving slowly round a piece of sculpture and examine it from a different point of view, while presenting a different and possible less interesting silhouette to our eyes, is of equal importance to our appreciation of the work as a plastic whole.
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We can see from the following quotes that the music establishment believes that Satie had little compositional craft: 1. Clearly, a middle ground needs to be found where we can bring together the findings of the above and then make some observations To suggest that there is a connection between Lambert and Cage is problematic as to my knowledge there is no evidence to support it. Perloff and C. Juckermann , University of Chicago Press, Chicago, , p Nyman, p Cage, "Defense of Satie", p Cage, "Satie Controversy", p Revill, p Elena L. French and David S. Cage, "Erik Satie", p Cage, "Erik Satie", p Bryars, p Satie quoted in: Cage, "Erik Satie", p Peter Dickinson, review in Music Quarterly, Vol.
Constant Lambert, Music Ho!
Lambert, p Pierre-Daniel Templier, Erik Satie trans. Meyers, Erik Satie, p5. Rauschenberg stipulated that the three panels could be installed either vertically or horizontally. In its vertical orientation, the work reaches slightly more than sixteen and a half feet high; when shown side by side, the three panels measure just over twelve feet across.
The printing was done with Broadside Art, Inc. Javits, Robert Rauschenberg, and Milton Glaser, Douglas M. Edward A.