How to Make Your Own Patent Drawing and Save Thousands: Everything You Need to Know Explained Simply

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I t is not news that we are becoming more sedentary as a species. The problem has been creeping up on us for generations. As industry and technology solved the physical demands of manual labour, they created new challenges for the human body. Evidence about bone strength and density gleaned from fossils of early humans suggests that, for hundreds of thousands of years, normal levels of movement were much higher than ours today.

And the range of work required of the human body to subsist was sizeable: everything from foraging for food and finding water to hunting, constructing basic shelters, manufacturing tools and evading predators. A hundred years ago, while life was easier than it had been for our hunter-gatherer forebears, it was still required that shopping was fetched, floors scrubbed, wood chopped and washing done by hand. Modern urban environments do not invite anything like the same kinds of work from the body. It is not easy to clock up those miles when cities are built to prioritise cars and treat pedestrians as secondary.

We are not assisted by our environments to move like we used to, for reasons tied up with motivation, safety and accessibility. Technological innovations have led to countless minor reductions of movement. To clean a rug in the s, most people took it into their yard and whacked the bejeezus out of it for 20 minutes. Fast-forward a few decades and we can set robot vacuum cleaners to wander about our living rooms as we order up some shopping to be delivered, put on the dishwasher, cram a load into the washer-dryer, admire the self-cleaning oven, stack some machine-cut logs in the grate, pour a glass of milk from the frost-free fridge or thumb a capsule into the coffee maker.

Each of these devices and behaviours is making it a bit more difficult for us to keep moving regularly throughout our day. Cleaning a rug once burned about calories, while activating a robo-vac uses about 0.

A great deal of energy is also saved in the kinds of work that we now do. Towards the end of the 19th century, the labour market began to change radically. Office clerks were the fastest-growing occupational group in the latter half of the period. The UK census of suggests that 0. By , the number had increased twentyfold, and only kept increasing. As a result of our leisurely lifestyles, our bones are thinner and our muscles weaker, and while these are not problems in themselves, they are part of the larger, fleshier story whereby the diminution of movement is shackling humans to the very biggest global killers.

Heart disease and strokes are responsible for about 1 7 million deaths a year , according to the World Health Organization.

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All-day activity trackers like the Apple Watch and the Fitbit which is only a decade old this year have attempted to make an intervention into this sandpit of sedentariness. Widespread use of wearables may be helping people to move more, but technology created this problem of sedentary work and leisure, and cannot solve it alone.

Exercise, in these terms, is not a fad, or an option, or an add-on to our busy lifestyles: it is keeping us alive.

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But before it can work for us, our whole approach needs to change. A s a result of the Miracle Cure report, doctors were urged to promote regular exercise among their patients. Humans obviously need regular activity, but the modern world strives to take exertion out of our lives. Modernity is characterised by imperatives to simplify, improve and maximise efficiency. In much the same way, medical bodies trying to motivate the population to exercise promise big results with the absolute minimum of disruption to our busy, seated lives.

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If minutes — or half an hour five times a week — is too much for you, and the data suggests that for most of us it is, another public health strategy promotes the efficacy of being active for just 10 minutes a day. Even less time is required for high-intensity interval training HIIT , which can involve bouts of just 20 seconds of intense effort a few times a week. It seems there is good evidence for the efficacy of very short bursts of strenuous anaerobic exercise, such as sprinting or cycling hard, followed by a brief recovery period. Interval training may improve insulin sensitivity and oxygen circulation, and increase muscle mass.

But the problem is not really with the exercises themselves; it is what we tend to do in between those bursts of activity. The health effects of being sedentary are as common and recognisable as they are serious. Anxiety, depression, heart disease, breast and colon cancer, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and the leading cause of global disability , back pain, are all driven by sedentary behaviours.

For our bodies to function properly, they operate on the assumption that we will be burning calories throughout the day, and not in short bursts. It is clear that periods of sedentariness are bad for the human body, and some exercise is always going to be better than none; the issue is not really to do with the types of exercise, but with our approach to them and what we expect them to achieve.

We know from the data that the human relationship with exercise is predominantly characterised as both optional and additional to an otherwise sedentary life, which itself causes a ton of problems. As long as physical activity is divorced from the real work of our lives, we will find reasons for not doing it. No matter how low the institutional expectations for physical activity drop, more of us fail to meet them each year.

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The reasons are numerous, but they seem to be connected to our notion of exercise, and the difference between short bursts of running or cycling and low-level, sustained physical activity. If we go back to the beginnings of exercise, we can see why it is still so problematic for us today.

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T he rise of exercise is synonymous with the rise of leisure. We associate this with the start of the Industrial Revolution, but in fact it dates from much earlier. Once humans settled and began to build, several thousand years ago, hierarchies began to form, particularly in cities, as did the gap between master and servant. To be one of the elite meant others were doing the physical work for you. For the masters, there was time to fill, and into this space grew the idea of leisure. Exercise also emerges here, in the imbalance created in the spread of labour performed across a population.

Ever since, we have seen a powerful link between exercise and inequality. The wealthy men of ancient Greece, deprived of work by their slaves and with little else to do, invented a new place called the gymnasium, an open space in the city where they could strip off and gambol about naked, competing in made-up challenges to keep each other fit for war.

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Later, the Romans also celebrated the value of exercise. They understood that even though the slave class did their work for them, exercise and physical activity were essential for a long and sane life. After the Greeks and Romans, exercise all but disappeared from western culture. The merchant, without withdrawing his attention from his accounts, and the student, while occupied in writing or reading, may have his lower limbs kept in constant motion by the slightest exertion, or, the assistance of a child.

In the early 20th century, calisthenics became popular among people with limited means of expending physical energy. Since our modern way of life denies many of us the physical exertion that kept our ancestors healthy, one way to gain social capital is to add it back in. Any kind of communal exercise gives us a sense of belonging, of shared values and endeavours, aside even from its more general physical and mental benefits.

When people gather together in a gym or in an exercise class, at least one aspect of what they are doing is joining together in a civic activity that ensures their collective survival, just like the ancient Greeks before them.

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I f being fit promotes long life, you might expect being an elite athlete to help you reach a ripe old age. Olympians buy themselves an extra 2. Instead, the fittest and healthiest people on the planet have never been to a gym. The term was coined by two demographers, Gianni Pes and Michel Poulain, who, while collecting data on clusters of centenarians on the island of Sardinia, identified places of especially high longevity on their map with a blue felt-tip pen.

Because clusters of long-lived people are often found in geographically remote places also including parts of Okinawa, Costa Rica and Greece , jackpot genes seem like a strong candidate to explain their longevity. In the list of contributory factors, there is a noticeable absence of exercise. I travelled to Sardinia to meet Pes and find out more about his work. He has a vested interest in longevity. Patent and Trademark Office. Whether you're apploying for a utility or design patent, with How to Make Patent Drawings , you can:. The 8th edition is completely updated to reflect recent changes to patent law and the newest advances in technical drawing.

Patent Office, a crucial and sometimes expensive step in the patenting process. He has over 40 years of experience in the patent profession -- as a patent examiner for the U. Patent Office, a patent attorney in corporate and private practice, a university instructor, a columnist, and as author of the Patent and Trademark entries to the World Book Encyclopedia. He is an expert on patent filing, prosecution, and licensing and his books have charted the path for over , inventors.

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