The Letter R (Level 1) (The Alphabet Book 18)

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Language All English Spanish 2. Refine results. Filter your search. Showing 1 to 30 of results. Add to basket. Alphabet Songs Fiona Pritchard. ABC Lyn Wendon. First Reading Flashcards Lyn Wendon. New Magnetic Letters Lyn Wendon. A variety of opinions are expressed in the Talmud at Sanhedrin 21ca: one opinion states that the Torah was originally given in K'tav Ivri, but was changed to K'tav Ashuri in the days of Ezra, after the Babylonian Exile the Babylonians, and consequently the Jews in exile, used K'tav Ashuri.

Another opinion says that the Torah was written in K'tav Ashuri, but that holy script was denied the people when they sinned and was replaced with another one; when the people repented, the K'tav Ashuri was restored. A third opinion states that the Torah was always in K'tav Ashuri. The general consensus is that the Torah was given in K'tav Ashuri, because the Talmud makes other references that don't make sense in K'tav Ivri.

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The Talmud talks about final forms of letters in the original Torah, but K'tav Ivri doesn't have final forms. It talks about the center of the Samekh and the Final Mem miraculously floating when the Ten Commandments were carved all the way through the tablets, but there is no Final Mem in K'tav Ivri, and neither Samekh nor Mem would have a floating center in K'tav Ivri as they do in K'tav Ashuri.

The Alphabetic Principle

All authorities maintain that today, the only holy script is K'tav Ashuri. K'tav Ivri is understood to be in the nature of a font, like Rashi script, rather than in the nature of a different alphabet, like Greek, Cyrillic or Roman. The names of the letters, the order of the letters, and the numerical value of the letters are apparently the same in both K'tav Ashuri and K'tav Ivri; thus, any religious significance that would be found in the numerical value of words or the sequence of the alphabet is the same in both scripts.

The only difference is the appearance. The process of writing Hebrew words in the Roman English alphabet is known as transliteration. Transliteration is more an art than a science, and opinions on the correct way to transliterate words vary widely. Each spelling has a legitimate phonetic and orthographic basis; none is right or wrong. Each letter in the alefbet has a numerical value.

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Table 6 shows each letter with its corresponding numerical value. Note that final letters have the same value as their non-final counterparts. The numerical value of a word is determined by adding up the values of each letter. Ordinarily, however, numbers are written with the fewest possible letters and with the largest numeral first that is, to the right. The number 11 would be written Yod-Alef with the Yod on the right, because Hebrew is written right-to-left , the number 12 would be Yod-Beit, the number 21 would be Kaf-Alef, the number would be Tav-Reish-Yod-Alef, etc.

Because every letter of the alphabet has a numerical value, every word also has a numerical value. There is an entire discipline of Jewish mysticism known as Gematria that is devoted to finding hidden meanings in the numerical values of words. For example, the number 18 is very significant, because it is the numerical value of the word Chai, meaning life or living.

Donations to Jewish charities are routinely made in denominations of 18 for that reason. Some have suggested that the final forms of the letters Kaf, Mem, Nun, Pei and Tzadei have the numerical values of , , , and , providing a numerical system that could easily render numbers up to However, there does not appear to be any basis for that interpretation in Jewish tradition. Indeed, writing it in that way would look absurd to anyone familiar with Hebrew, because a final letter should never appear at the beginning of a word! But even where numerology is used only to determine the numerical values of words, you will not find examples in Jewish tradition of final letters being given different values.

For example, in traditional sources, the numerical value of one name of G-d that ends in Final Mem is 86, not I have received several e-mails pointing out that the numerical value of Vav often transliterated as W is 6, and therefore WWW has the numerical value of ! The Internet, they say, is the number of the beast!

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It's an amusing notion, but Hebrew numbers just don't work that way. It is also worth noting that the significance of the number is a part of Christian numerology, and has no basis that I know of in Jewish thought.

Advantages of Learning the Letter Names

While we're on the subject of bad numbers, it is worth noting that the number 13 is not a bad number in Jewish tradition or numerology. Normally written as Yod-Gimel, 13 is the numerical value of the word ahava love, Alef-Hei-Beit-Hei and of echad one, as in the daily prayer declaration, G-d is One! Thirteen is the age of responsibility, when a boy becomes bar mitzvah. Rambam summed up Jewish beliefs in Thirteen Principles. Many fonts have a built-in Hebrew character set.

Current versions of Windows should have the Hebrew characters built into their fonts; if not, your browser may be able to automatically download fonts for viewing Hebrew on the web simply by viewing a Hebrew web page. In Windows, you can see these characters using the Windows Character Map tool. Persuading your computer to type these characters, however, can be a bit of a trick! This page displays some standard fonts that should include Hebrew characters, so you can see if your browser supports them. If you do not already have Hebrew web fonts installed, your browser should give you an opportunity to download them.

This page includes a JavaScript tool that will help you type Hebrew, if you have Hebrew support. The results of that script can be copied and pasted into your word processor, if it supports Hebrew characters. Depending on your word processor, you may need to reverse the results for them to appear properly.

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  7. The page can reverse them for you. Feel free to download that page and use it on your own computer. The scripts you need to run it are all in the file. If you are serious about writing a significant amount of text in Hebrew, you will need a proper Hebrew word processor. I have used DavkaWriter , from Davka Software. DavkaWriter comes with many attractive Hebrew fonts including both consonants and vowels that will map to your keyboard in an intuitive phonetic way or in the standard Israeli keyboard format.

    It is very easy to switch between Hebrew and English within a document. DavkaWriter even comes with little stickers to put on the keys of your keyboard so you can learn their keyboard mappings, and an onscreen display shows you their keyboard mappings. Davka also has a lot of fonts available, as well as a lot of other Hebrew and Judaic software. For mobile devices, there are a number of apps, many of them free, that will allow you to type Hebrew characters. I can't correct my mistakes or add new material if it's on your site.